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Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Buat bahas seputar Jepang, pusat studi Jepang, tempat wisata di Jepang, belajar bahasa Jepang, dll...

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Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Postby skold » Tue Sep 28, 2010 9:26 pm

Folklor yang sekarang disebut mitologi Jepang, hampir seluruhnya berdasarkan cerita yang terdapat dalam Kojiki, Nihonshoki, dan Fudoki dari berbagai provinsi di Jepang. Dalam kata lain, mitologi Jepang sebagian besar berkisar pada berbagai kami penghuni Takamanohara (Takaamahara, atau Takamagahara), dan hanya sedikit sumber literatur tertulis yang dapat dijadikan rujukan. Cerita rakyat Jepang memang unik dan tidak ada habisnya untuk dibahas. Sering kali kita mengenal berbagai hantu dan legenda Jepang dari film atau anime. Di sini akan dibeberkan sedikit dari makhluk-makhluk tersebut.


Mau tau apa aja? Silahkan disimak

• Kappa
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Bentuknya mirip setan kecil, sering juga disebut monyet air. Seekor Kappa memiliki lekukan di atas kepalanya dan lekukan itu dipenuhi air dari mata air asli. Jika air tersebut tumpah, kekuatan magisnya hilang. Kappa biasanya minum darah tapi itu tergantung apakah dia baik atau jahat. Kappa suka mentimun dan apabila ada keluarga yang ingin dilindungi Kappa atau menghindari kesialan, mereka biasanya menulis nama mereka di mentimun dan melemparnya di kolam Kappa. Makhluk ini dikenal sopan dan selalu menepati janji. Yang aneh dalam cerita Kappa di cerita rakyat Jepang adalah banyaknya versi Kappa yang berbeda. Ada Kappa bermata satu, Kappa berbulu, Kappa penakut, Kappa pendaki gunung dan bahkan pesta Kappa.


• Heikegani
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Alasan mengapa Heikegani ada di daftar ini adalah karena mereka benar-benar ada. Kepiting Heikegani adalah salah satu spesies artropoda asli Jepang. Asalnya, mitos Jepang menyatakan bahwa kepiting ini menanggung wajah Heike samurai yang tewas dalam pertempuran Dan-no-ura, dan memang tubuh kepiting ini mirip wajah manusia. Carl Saham mengatakan, di masa lalu, orang-orang Jepang hanya memakan kepiting Heikegani yang tidak mirip wajah samurai agar mereka bisa selamat dan mendapat keturunan. Dewasa ini, kebanyakan kepiting ini memiliki tubuh yang menyerupai wajah manusia (meski hanya berdiameter 1 atau 2 inci). Kepiting ini jarang dimakan.

Foto aslinya:
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• Kasa-obake
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Kasa-obake adalah jenis Tsukumogami, benda yang tiba-tiba menjadi hidup setelah ada selama seratus tahun. Gagasan tentang benda mati yang tiba-tiba hidup tampaknya masuk akal jika melihat awal mula berbagai cerita rakyat atau legenda. Hal yang aneh tentang Kasa-obake adalah bahwa mereka mempunyai nama mereka sendiri, hanya untuk memisahkan mereka dari Tsukumogami lain. Memang benar, Kasa-obake adalah nama setang payung.



• Nuppeppo
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Tidak banyak informasi tentang Nuppeppo. Nuppeppo adalah setan gumpalan daging manusia. Mereka berjalan dengan tangan dan sering ditemukan di kuburan atau kuil kosong tengah malam. Dari mana mereka datang? Mengapa mereka hidup? Apa bau mereka menyengat? Mengapa kebanyakan gambar mereka terlihat lucu? Saya tidak memiliki banyak informasi tentang pakan ternak film horor ini.



• Makura-gaeshi
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Yang unik dari cerita rakyat Jepang adalah karena makhluk-makhluknya yang suka melakukan hal-hal aneh. Makura-gaeshi adalah roh jahil yang terkenal suka menggeser bantal saat orang tidur. Beberapa sumber mengatakan mereka juga suka menaburkan pasir di mata manusia dan mencuri jiwa, tapi yang paling dikenal dari kejahilan hantu ini adalah suka menggeser bantal (serius). Tidak ada cerita yang menjelaskan seberapa jauh bantal dipindahkan, beberapa sumber menceritakan mereka hanya menjatuhkan bantal tersebut saat pemiliknya tertidur pulas.



• Mokumokuren
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Mokumokuren juga salah satu dari setan Jepang yang suka melakukan hal aneh. Di zaman Jepang kuno, pintu geser terbuat dari kertas biasa. Tentunya kertas tersebut bisa berlubang dan sobek. Mokumokuren adalah roh yang mendiami kertas pintu geser yang berlubang. Jika pemilik pintu geser ceroboh dan kertasnya banyak lubang, banyak pula Mokumokuren yang mengintip lewat lubang tersebut. Memang hal ini agak menakutkan. Satu-satunya cara untuk menyingkirkan Mokumokuren adalah memperbaiki lubang-lubang pintu.



• Konaki jiji
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Konaki jiji adalah makhluk kecil yang jahat. Hantu ini berbentuk bayi dan bersembunyi di daerah pegunungan terpencil menunggu pejalan yang tidak bersalah lewat. Ketika korban sudah di depan mata, Konaki jiji mulai menangis, dan pejalan kaki yang punya hati tentu akan mencari dan menghentikan tangisan bayi dengan menghiburnya. Padahal itu adalah kesalahan besar. Saat Konaki jiji diangkat, beratnya akan bertambah tak tertahankan. Beberapa sumber mengatakan mereka bisa tumbuh hungga 350 kilogram, cukup untuk membuat kerusakan serius bagi siapa yang mengangkatnya. Terkadang si korban tidak bisa menjatuhkan Konaki jiji karena lumpuh. Namun, jika ada yang bisa bertahan dengan berat Konaki jiji, hal itu akan memberikan kekuatan gaib.



• Akaname
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Akaname dapat diartikan sebagai ‘penjilat kotoran’, dan itu tidak salah. Akaname adalah jenis hantu Jepang mengerikan yang menjilat kamar mandi kotor dengan bantuan lidah dan air liur beracun. Hal ini diyakini merupakan cara orang tua agar anak-anaknya menjaga kebersihan kamar mandi.



• Ittan Momen
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Ittan momen tampak cukup berbahaya walaupun hanya sepotong kain putih sepanjang 33 kaki. Kebiasaannya terbang beas di malam hari, agak aneh, tapi tidak terlalu menakutkan. Makhluk ini memang tidak menakutkan, sampai mereka melakukan kejahatan mereka. Mereka membungkus kepala orang dan meremukkan tengkoraknya sampai mati. Walau begitu, Ittan momen senang jika mendapatkan kepercayaan dari orang-orang untuk dikenakan. Hal itu masih menjadi misteri.


• Shirme
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Yang terakhir ini mungkin yang paling aneh. Shirme adalah sebutan untuk laki-laki yang matanya di *n*s. Tidak banyak informasi tentangnya sekarang ini. Kenyataannya, hanya ada satu kisah tercatat tentang Shirme, dan kisah ini sangat disukai pembuat pengarang cerita dan artis Jepang Yosa Buson yang ada di dalam lukisannya. Cerita tentang Shirme itu mengisahkan tentang seorang samurai yang sedang berjalan sendiri di malam hari ketika seseorang memanggilnya. Ia berpaling dan melihat seorang laki-laki misterius membuka baju dan menunjukkan bokongnya dan mata berkilauan muncul dari situ. Samurai itu ketakutan dan melarikan diri. Sejak itu Shirme tidak pernah terlihat lagi.
sumber


>>>laporan keuangan akihabara 2009

klo mw ngepost, postlah yg berkualitas, atau paling tidak yg bermanfaat

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Keith Hanzhel
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Re: Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Postby Keith Hanzhel » Tue Sep 28, 2010 10:29 pm

PERTAMAX!

wah wa kira bakal jelasin 4 penjaga gerbang (Ramen,Sardi,Vantat, n.... ups, salah)
ternyata para Youkai... klo ini mah g cukup... msh ad laen....
karena wa malas wa copas aja dari Wiki yap....
Zashikiwarashi
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Zashiki-warashi (座敷童/座敷童子 zashiki-warashi?), sometimes also called zashiki-bokko (座敷ぼっこ zashiki-bokko?), is a Japanese yōkai, stemming from Iwate Prefecture, similar to a domovoi.

The name breaks down to zashiki, a tatami floored room, and warashi, an archaic regional term for a child. The appearance of this spirit is that of a 5 or 6 year child with bobbed hair and a red face. Zashiki-warashi can be found in well-maintained and preferably large old houses. It is said that once a zashiki-warashi inhabits a house, it brings the residence great fortune; on the other hand, should a zashiki-warashi depart, the domain soon falls into a steep decline.

To attract and maintain a zashiki-warashi in the home, it is said the spirit must be noticed, appreciated and cared for properly, much in the manner one would raise a child, though too much attention may drive it off. As the zashiki-warashi is child-like in nature, it is prone to playing harmless pranks and occasionally causing mischief. They might for instance sit on a guest's futon, turn people's pillows over or cause sounds similar to kagura music to be heard from rooms no one uses. Sometimes they leave little footsteps in ashes. There are different variations as to who can see the zashiki-warashi; usually this is limited to inhabitants of the house, sometimes to children.

The Ryokufūsō in Kindaichi-Onsen, which burned down on October 4, 2009, was famed for its zashiki-warashi. Yōkai similar to zashiki-warashi in other parts of Japan include the makuragaeshi in Ishikawa Prefecture, the akashaguma or kurabokko in Tokushima Prefecture and the akashaguma living in the Kotohira Shrine.[/spoiler]
Ningyo
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Ningyo (人魚?, "human fish"), often translated as "mermaid," is a fish-like creature from Japanese folklore. Anciently, it was described with a mouth like a monkey's, small teeth like a fish's, shining golden scales, and a quiet voice like a skylark or a flute. Its flesh is pleasant-tasting, and anyone who eats it will attain remarkable longevity. However, catching a ningyo was believed to bring storms and misfortune, so fishermen who caught these creatures were said to throw them back into the sea. A ningyo washed onto the beach was an omen of war or calamity.[/spoiler]
Kyūketsuki (Vampire)
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Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings who subsist by feeding on the life essence (generally in the form of blood) of living creatures, regardless of whether they are undead or a living person.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Although vampiric entities have been recorded in many cultures and in spite of speculation by literary historian Brian Frost that the "belief in vampires and bloodsucking demons is as old as man himself", and may go back to "prehistoric times",[7] the term vampire was not popularized until the early 18th century, after an influx of vampire superstition into Western Europe from areas where vampire legends were frequent, such as the Balkans and Eastern Europe,[8] although local variants were also known by different names, such as vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. This increased level of vampire superstition in Europe led to mass hysteria and in some cases resulted in corpses actually being staked and people being accused of vampirism.

While even folkloric vampires of the Balkans and Eastern Europe had a wide range of appearance ranging from nearly human to bloated rotting corpses, it was the success of John Polidori's 1819 novella The Vampyre that established the archetype of charismatic and sophisticated vampire; it is arguably the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century,[9] inspiring such works as Varney the Vampire and eventually Dracula.[10]

However, it is Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula that is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and which provided the basis of modern vampire fiction. Dracula drew on earlier mythologies of werewolves and similar legendary demons and "was to voice the anxieties of an age", and the "fears of late Victorian patriarchy".[11] The success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, films, video games, and television shows. The vampire is such a dominant figure in the horror genre that literary historian Susan Sellers places the current vampire myth in the "comparative safety of nightmare fantasy"[/spoiler]
Yuki-onna
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Yuki Onna (雪女?, snow woman) is a spirit or yōkai in Japanese folklore. Yuki-onna appears on snowy nights as a tall, beautiful woman with long black hair and red lips. Her inhumanly pale or even transparent skin makes her blend into the snowy landscape (as famously described in Lafcadio Hearn's Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things). She sometimes wears a white kimono,[2] but other legends describe her as nude, with only her face and hair standing out against the snow.[3] Despite her inhuman beauty, her eyes can strike terror into mortals. She floats across the snow, leaving no footprints (in fact, some tales say she has no feet, a feature of many Japanese ghosts), and she can transform into a cloud of mist or snow if threatened.[/spoiler]
Honne-onna
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Hone-onna (骨女?, literally: skeleton woman) is a yōkai of Japanese folklore. Like her name suggests, her true form is that of a skeletal woman. In the guise of a beautiful woman, she lures unwitting men while she s**ks the life force of her targets dry.[/spoiler]
Amewarashi
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Ameonna (雨女, "rain woman") is a female spirit illustrated in Toriyama Sekien's Konjaku Hyakki Shūi as a woman standing in the rain and licking her hand. She is described as a goddess from China's Mount Wushan, who is a cloud in the morning and rain in the evening. She may be considered a rain-bringer for crops.[/spoiler]
Bakeneko
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A bakeneko (化け猫?, "ghost-cat able to appear in disguise") is, in Japanese folklore, a cat with supernatural abilities akin to those of the fox or raccoon dog. A cat may become a bakeneko in a number of ways: it may reach a certain age, be kept for a certain number of years, grow to a certain size, or be allowed to keep a long tail. In the last case, the tail forks in two and the bakeneko is then called a nekomata (猫又?, or 猫股 "monster"). This superstition may have some connection to the breeding of the Japanese Bobtail.

A bakeneko will haunt any household it is kept in, creating ghostly fireballs, menacing sleepers, walking on its hind legs, changing its shape into that of a human, and even devouring its own mistress in order to shapeshift and take her place. When it is finally killed, its body may be as much as five feet in length. It also poses a danger if allowed into a room with a fresh corpse; a cat is believed to be capable of reanimating a body by jumping over it.[/spoiler]
Mizuchi
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Mizuchi (蛟?) was a Japanese dragon and water deity.

The name mizuchi (from Old Japanese midzu-chi) is written with several Japanese kanji, usually the Chinese characters for jiao 蛟 "4-legged dragon" and qiu 虬 or 虯 "hornless dragon". Daniels (1960:157) notes that rain-controlling Japanese snake deities are sometimes called dragons, but cautions that for okami and mizuchi, "it is unsafe to deduce their forms from the Chinese characters allotted to them."

The Nihongi contains the earliest references to mizuchi river-gods, written once with the kanji 虬 and once with the Man'yōgana transcription mizuchi 水父 "water-father". Two contexts from the semi-legendary era of Emperor Nintoku (traditional dates 313-399 CE) concern river engineering projects that angered mizuchi.[/spoiler]
Kitsune
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Kitsune (狐?, IPA: [kitsɯne] ( listen)) is the Japanese word for fox. Foxes are a common subject of Japanese folklore and are akin to European faeries; in English, kitsune refers to them in this context. Stories depict them as intelligent beings and as possessing magical abilities that increase with their age and wisdom. Foremost among these is the ability to assume human form. While some folktales speak of kitsune employing this ability to trick others—as foxes in folklore often do—other stories portray them as faithful guardians, friends, lovers, and wives.

Foxes and human beings lived close together in ancient Japan; this companionship gave rise to legends about the creatures. Kitsune have become closely associated with Inari, a Shinto kami or spirit, and serve as his messengers. This role has reinforced the fox's supernatural significance. The more tails a kitsune has—they may have as many as nine—the older, wiser, and more powerful it is. Because of their potential power and influence, some people make offerings to them as to a deity.[/spoiler]
Moon-Rabbit
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The Moon rabbit, also called the Jade Rabbit, is a rabbit that lives on the moon in folklore, based on pareidolia that identifies the markings of the moon as a rabbit. The story exists in many cultures, particularly in East Asian folklore, where it is seen pounding in a mortar and pestle.[1][2] In Chinese folklore, it is often portrayed as a companion of the moon goddess Chang'e, constantly pounding the elixir of life for her; but in Japanese and Korean versions it is just pounding the ingredients for rice cake.[/spoiler]
Ookami
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Ōkami​ (大神,? literally "great god", or "wolf" if written as 狼[10]) (sory,blm dpt sumber lain krn pada intiny Ookami itu serigala)
Last edited by Keith Hanzhel on Thu Sep 30, 2010 2:57 pm, edited 1 time in total.


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Re: Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Postby myonlylovesakura » Tue Sep 28, 2010 10:33 pm

kalo Sadako masuk gak? :roll:

apa dia masuk kategori makhluk mistis modern yah? :mrgreen:


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I will save her. definitely.

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Re: Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Postby skold » Thu Sep 30, 2010 7:11 am

Keith Hanzhel wrote:PERTAMAX!

wah wa kira bakal jelasin 4 penjaga gerbang (Ramen,Sardi,Vantat, n.... ups, salah)
ternyata para Youkai... klo ini mah g cukup... msh ad laen....



mangstap gan..

kalo bisa dijelasin juga biar tambah ngerti :)

myonlylovesakura wrote:kalo Sadako masuk gak? :roll:

apa dia masuk kategori makhluk mistis modern yah? :mrgreen:


wah gw juga bingung, sadako masuk ga yah :roll:

tapi kalo mau dibahas ya silahkan :)


>>>laporan keuangan akihabara 2009

klo mw ngepost, postlah yg berkualitas, atau paling tidak yg bermanfaat

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Keith Hanzhel
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Re: Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Postby Keith Hanzhel » Thu Sep 30, 2010 3:07 pm

Wes, postny dah wa edit....


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Re: Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Postby Volcram » Sun Jan 02, 2011 10:28 pm

update~
Chōchinobake
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Chōchin'obake (提灯 お化け, "hantu lentera kertas") adalah jenis Tsukumogami, hantu dari Jepang yang berasal dari benda mencapai 100 tahun keberadaan mereka, sehingga menjadi bernyawa (sama seperti kasa-obake). Chōchin'obake secara khusus berasal dari lentera chōchin, yang terbuat dari bambu dan kertas atau sutra. Mereka biasanya digambarkan dengan satu mata, dan lidah panjang menonjol dari mulut terbuka.[/spoiler]


Jorōgumo
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Jorōgumo (絡新婦) adalah sejenis yokai yang mengambil rupa sebagai setengah wanita setengah laba-laba. Dikatakan bahwa laba-laba yang telah hidup selama 400 tahun akan mempunyai kekuatan sihir dan berubah menjadi Jorōgumo. Biasanya muncul di malam hari di tempat yang sepi sebagai wanita cantik yang menarik laki-laki dengan memainkan Biwa (semacam seruling). Pada saat laki-laki yang tertarik sedang asyik mendengarkan permainan biwa tersebut Jorōgumo melilitnya dengan jaring laba-labanya dan membawanya untuk dimakan kemudian.[/spoiler]


Noppera-bō
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Noppera-bō (のっぺら坊, Noppera-bō), atau si muka rata, adalah hantu yang berasal dari legenda jepang. Awalnya mengambil rupa manusia atau bahkan sebagai orang yang dikenal dengan korban (misalnya sebagai istrinya, temannya, dll) sampai akhirnya Noppera-bō menunjukkan wajah aslinya yang merupakan permukaan rata dimana seharusnya ada wajah. Walaupun diketahui sering menakuti manusia Noppera-bō biasanya tidak melukai korbannya.


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Re: Makhluk Mythology Jepang

Postby yue^^chan » Thu Feb 10, 2011 9:33 pm

The gost of oiwa...



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